Frequently Asked Questions



What is pre-diabetes? How does it differ from diabetes?

Pre-diabetes is a serious health condition characterized by elevated blood sugar levels. Diabetes is a condition that occurs when blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is abnormally high. Pre-diabetes is when the fasting blood sugar is >90 but <120, and diabetes is when the fasting blood sugar is >125. Even a random blood sugar value >180 is considered diabetes. Pre-diabetes is the earliest stage of diabetes. Healthy lifestyle changes such as weight loss, diet, stress management, sleep correction, and increased physical activity can reverse pre-diabetes. Diabetes can also be reversed with intensive medication and other therapies, but reversing it is more difficult.

From where does diabetes originate?

Diabetes is an imbalance between how much food you eat and how much your body can use for daily function. When we eat food, the pancreas, a gland behind the stomach, releases insulin. When this is absent at birth, you have type 1 diabetes and must take insulin all your life. When the insulin production is insufficient to meet the demands of your body producing blood glucose, you get type 2 diabetes of insulin-deficient diabetes. When we eat more food than we require or can utilise, the body stores the excess glucose in the liver as fat. When this fat increases beyond the liver's capacity, it accumulates around various organs, including visceral fat. When we have visceral fat, insulin can no longer enter to perform its function. The excess demand on the pancreas to produce more insulin leads to insulin resistance or pre-diabetes. If you can get rid of all the visceral fat, and improve the sensitivity of insulin again, then you will not develop type 2 diabetes, or you can reverse it completely.

What are the symptoms of diabetes?

There are often no symptoms. When symptoms do appear, they include increased thirst or urination, dry mouth, itchy skin, weight loss, hazy eyesight, slow-healing cuts, leg pain, yeast infection between the fingers and toes, beneath the breasts, and in or around sex organs. You could also notice significant weight loss without an active weight loss program.

Is it possible to get rid of diabetes? Is it ever going away?

Diabetes is entirely reversible if you have the insulin-deficient type of diabetes or type 2 diabetes. It is easier to do it when it is in the insulin-resistant form or better when diagnosed in the pre-diabetes stage. If you have Type 1, you will have it for the rest of your life. Advances in medicine could come from the inventions of artificial pancreas and performing a pancreas transplant. It is beyond the scope of our current discussion. To get rid of diabetes, monitoring your blood sugar variation during the day, blood pressure, and blood cholesterol levels is critical. Having diabetes or not, it is always good to practice healthy eating, regularly doing physical activity, and sustained exercises. You must visit your doctor regularly and take your medications as directed. Visiting a doctor can help you get the tests and checks you need to detect complications early and aggressively treat them.

What is gestational diabetes?

Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that can develop in women during pregnancy who do not already have diabetes. Gestational diabetes develops when the body cannot produce enough insulin during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the body makes more hormones and goes through other changes, such as weight gain. These changes cause the cells in the body to use insulin less effectively, resulting in insulin resistance. Insulin resistance increases the body’s need for insulin. During late pregnancy, all pregnant women experience some insulin resistance. However, some women have insulin resistance even before they become pregnant. They begin pregnancy with an increased need for insulin and are more likely to develop gestational diabetes.

How can diabetes be identified?

Measuring blood glucose (sugar) levels are the only way to determine if you or a loved one has diabetes. Laboratory tests confirm a diabetes diagnosis. Your blood test results are usually available within a few hours or a day. It is essential to test your blood only in a reputed and accredited laboratory as specific methods could introduce errors that can wrongly diagnose diabetes or not provide an accurate picture of the severity of your diabetes.

What are the various blood tests used to detect diabetes?

The various blood tests that could be used to diagnose diabetes are discussed below.

  • HbA1c- The main blood test used to diagnose diabetes is an HbA1c test. It examines your average blood sugar levels over the previous two to three months.

  • Random blood glucose test- If you have severe diabetes symptoms, you may be subjected to a random blood test at any time of day. This is a simple test that involves a finger prick or a vein in your arm.

  • Fasting blood sugar test- Another blood test for diabetes is this. You must refrain from eating or drinking anything other than water for at least eight hours before to the test. This will prevent anything from influencing the outcomes. If possible, fasting overnight and taking the test in the morning is the easiest approach.

  • Glucose tolerance test- This blood test reveals whether your body is having issues processing the sugar you consume from food and beverages. Two parts are involved. You must undergo a fasting test first. Your blood glucose levels will be examined when a technician draws some blood from a vein in your arm. After that, you'll have a sweet beverage with a typical level of sugar. Your body's ability to maintain a normal blood sugar level will be tested. The technician will take more blood two hours later and recheck your blood sugar levels. The results of the tests you took while fasting and two hours later will reveal various level of blood glucose.

What is the blood sugar level that signals diabetes?

The levels of blood glucose detected by various tests are mentioned below:

  • HbA1c- Blood glucose level below 5.7% is considered normal; 5.7 – 6.4% indicates pre-diabetes; and 6.5% or above indicates diabetes.

  • Random blood glucose test- Blood glucose level of 200 mg/dL or above indicates diabetes.

  • Fasting blood sugar test- Blood glucose level 99 mg/dL or below is considered normal; 100 – 125 mg/dL is considered pre-diabetes; and 126 mg/dL or above is considered diabetes.

  • Glucose tolerance test- Blood glucose level 140 mg/dL or below is considered normal; 140 – 199 mg/dL indicates pre-diabetes; and 200 mg/dL or above indicates diabetes.

Will physical activity improve my diabetes?

Type 2 diabetes can be effectively managed with exercise. Always speak with your doctor before beginning an exercise program in order to exercise safely and lower your risk.

What is hypertension?

Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the artery walls. Arteries are vessels that convey blood from your heart to various regions of the body. Throughout the day, blood pressure naturally rises and falls. When the blood pressure, or the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your blood vessels, is consistently too high, this condition is considered hypertension.

What causes high blood pressure?

High blood pressure is caused by a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors within the body. High blood pressure typically develops gradually. Hypertension can occur as a result of

  • poor lifestyle choices such as not getting enough exercise, using tobacco products, drinking alcohol, and eating meals high in sodium,

  • having high blood pressure in family members, or

  • being overweight.

How do I know if I have got high blood pressure ?

Rarely are there any symptoms or warning signs of high blood pressure. Yet, some symptoms of high blood pressure include moderate to severe headaches, anxiety, shortness of breath, nosebleeds, palpitations, or a sensation of pulsations in the neck. Taking frequent blood pressure readings is the most effective technique to determine if you have hypertension.

How can I reduce my chance of getting high blood pressure?

The likelihood of developing high blood pressure can be decreased by leading a healthy lifestyle. The lifestyle choices include:

  • Maintaining a healthy weight

  • Exercising regularly

  • Limiting alcohol

  • Getting enough sleep

  • Cutting back on salt (sodium) in the diet

  • Giving up smoking

Will having high blood pressure affect my health in any way?

Untreated high blood pressure can cause a variety of medical issues. It can severely harm vital organs such as the heart, brain, kidneys, and eyes. Hypertension raises the risk of having a heart attack, stroke, and other significant health conditions.

What do the blood pressure readings indicate?

Two numbers are used to calculate blood pressure: The first number, systolic blood pressure, measures how much pressure is in your arteries when your heart beats. The second number, diastolic blood pressure, measures the pressure in your arteries between heartbeats. A person whose blood pressure is 132/88 mmHg (often pronounced "132 over 88") has a systolic reading of 132 mmHg and a diastolic reading of 88 mmHg.

What is normal blood pressure, and when is it termed high blood pressure?

dults are regarded to have normal blood pressure if their systolic and diastolic readings are less than 140 and 90 mmHg, respectively. If the systolic reading exceeds 140 mmHg, the diastolic reading exceeds 90 mmHg, or if both are higher than these levels, it is considered high blood pressure.

Why is hypertension more prevalent during menopause?

Reduced estrogen levels after menopause can lead to weight gain around the midsection, a reduced ability to use the hormone insulin to convert sugars in the blood into energy, higher lipid levels, and higher blood pressure. Hormone changes during menopause can also make blood pressure more sensitive to salt in the diet, leading to higher blood pressure. Some forms of hormone therapy (HT) for menopause may indeed cause an increase in blood pressure.

How can I lower my blood pressure without medication?

There are several lifestyle changes you can make to help lower your blood pressure naturally without medication:

  • Regular physical activity, such as brisk walking or jogging,

  • losing weight through diet and exercise,

  • eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein while limiting salt, saturated fat, and processed foods,

  • managing stress,

  • quitting smoking, and

  • limiting alcohol.

However, it is important to note that these lifestyle changes may not be sufficient to control high blood pressure in some cases, and medication may be necessary. It is always best to consult with your doctor before making any significant changes to your lifestyle or medication regimen.

Can hypertension be cured, or is it a chronic condition that requires lifelong management?

Hypertension is a lifelong disease that is manageable but generally not curable. It can be effectively managed with lifestyle changes and medications. Managing hypertension requires ongoing attention and monitoring. Even if blood pressure levels are under control with treatment, it is important to continue to follow healthy lifestyle habits and to regularly monitor blood pressure levels to ensure that it remains stable.

Are there any natural remedies or supplements that can help lower blood pressure?

There are several natural remedies and supplements that have been suggested to help lower blood pressure, but it is important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement or remedy to ensure safety and effectiveness. Certain supplements, such as potassium, magnesium, and folic acid, may reduce blood pressure, according to some scientific evidence. Herbs like basil, parsley, celery seeds, Chinese cat's claw, Bacopa monnieri, garlic, thyme, cinnamon, ginger, and cardamom can also help lower blood pressure.

What medications are used to treat hypertension, and how do they work?

There are various blood pressure medications that operate in a variety of ways to reduce blood pressure:

  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) prevent your blood arteries from constriction.

  • Calcium channel blockers prohibit calcium from entering the heart and blood vessel muscle cells. This causes the blood arteries to dilate.

  • Diuretics flush out excess water and sodium (salt) from the body. This reduces the volume of fluid in your circulation. Diuretics are frequently mixed with other high blood pressure medications, sometimes in a single pill.

  • Beta-blockers assist your heart in beating more slowly. This indicates that your heart is pumping less blood through your veins.

Which is the most significant Blood Pressure Number? The higher or the lower one?

While both numbers in a blood pressure reading are important in diagnosing and treating high blood pressure, physicians are most concerned with the top number, also known as systolic pressure. The systolic pressure gauges the force with which the heart pumps blood outward into the various parts of your body. The top number is more significant in predicting potential cardiovascular problems.

When Is High Blood Pressure an Emergency?

A hypertensive emergency occurs when blood pressure is so elevated that organ damage is possible. To avoid organ damage, blood pressure must be quickly reduced. If your blood pressure is 180/120 mm Hg or higher and you have chest pain, shortness of breath, or stroke symptoms, call emergency medical assistance. Numbness or tingling, difficulty speaking, or changes in vision are all signs of a stroke.

What kind of doctor should I go to if I have high blood pressure?

The best high blood pressure doctor is a cardiologist if your high blood pressure is particularly difficult to manage. However, internal medicine doctors can also recommend lifestyle modifications that might help you maintain a healthy blood pressure level and, if necessary, prescribe medication to help regulate your blood pressure.

What kind of doctor should I go to if I have high blood pressure?

The best high blood pressure doctor is a cardiologist if your high blood pressure is particularly difficult to manage. However, internal medicine doctors can also recommend lifestyle modifications that might help you maintain a healthy blood pressure level and, if necessary, prescribe medication to help regulate your blood pressure.

Is hypertension deemed a heart condition?

High blood pressure is not the same as heart disease or blood vessel blockages. It can, however, be harmful to your heart and the rest of your vascular system. High blood pressure puts additional strain on the artery walls, causing them to lose elasticity. This can result in severe health issues like a heart attack, stroke, aneurysm, and heart failure.

Is there any wellness program that can provide end-to-end support to get the best health outcomes if I have chronic high blood pressure?

According to some studies, up to 60% of individuals with heart disease have chronic hypertension. Patients with heart disease require continuous management, and they can achieve it by participating in digital cardiac rehabilitation. Patients can greatly benefit from blood pressure management due to the fully individualized recovery and health management rehabilitation systems. According to new research, the only proven path to cardiac recovery is a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program.

What is the life expectancy of someone with high blood pressure?

When left untreated for a prolonged period of time, the condition can become increasingly dangerous — even fatal. A study shows that a 50-year-old smoker with high blood pressure and elevated cholesterol has a life expectancy of 24 years, while a 50-year-old with none of the risk factors has a life expectancy of nine years. Timely diagnosis and treatment of hypertension increase life expectancy and prevent or delay heart disease.

How frequently should someone be checked for high blood pressure?

  • Individuals over the age of 18 with normal blood pressure and no risk factors for heart disease should have a blood pressure check every 2 to 5 years.

  • People over the age of 40, or those at a higher risk of developing high blood pressure, should have a blood pressure examination once a year.

  • People with health problems, such as high or low blood pressure or heart disease, may require more frequent blood pressure checks.

What are the different stages of hypertension?

Blood pressure is classified into the following stages: normal, prehypertension (mild), stage 1 (moderate), stage 2 (severe), and hypertensive crisis.

  • Normal: Systolic pressure is less than 120 mm Hg, and diastolic pressure is less than 80 mm Hg.

  • Prehypertension: Systolic blood pressure between 120 and 139 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure between 80 and 89 mm Hg.

  • Stage 1: Systolic pressure between 140 and 159 mm Hg and diastolic pressure between 90 and 99 mm Hg.

  • Stage 2: Systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg or higher and diastolic blood pressure of 100 mm Hg or higher.

  • Hypertensive crisis (see your doctor right away): A measurement of 180 (systolic) and/or 120 (diastolic)

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